Choosing the right dye is as important as choosing the highest quality wool from special geographic locations (See Materials). The two kinds of dyes are used in oriental rugs: Natural and Artificial.

The organic or natural dyes are extracted from indigo, saffron, madder root, henna, bark, fruit peel and different plant leaves. Natural dyes are also obtained from insects and several animal substances meaning they are more expensive than artificially dyed rugs. The best naturally died rugs are usually Persain, who are well known throughout the world for preparing high-quality natural dyes.

Synthetic or artificially dyed rugs are a recent innovation in the life of Oriental carpets. Discovered in 1856, the artificial range of colors reached Persia at the end of the last century. The quality of early artificial dyes was extremely poor and the carpets made at that time were not durable. However, in the past three decades, the quality of this type of dye has been considerably improved and the results are excellent. Modern high quality synthetics are light-resistant and retain the sharpness of their original shade of color, indefinitely.